Monsanto genetically m odified corn Brent Stirton/Getty Images

与科学精神相悖的种子条约

斯坦福——今年9月,美国批准了粮食和农业植物遗传资源国际条约,该条约亦称国际种子条约。像联合国主持制定的许多国际协议一样,这份协议存在严重的问题。事实上,这份种子条约可以说是一份政治正确、但却违背技术规律的失败的条约。

可以肯定,这份于2004年签订的条约其本意值得赞誉。但它却最终沦为一堆空头支票式的希望,并转化为对国家间遗传资源(以种子为主)交换的苛刻的法律束缚。条约目标的正式声明体现了条约的非现实性:“保护并可持续利用所有粮食和农业植物遗传资源,公正和平等地享有相关应用所产生的收益,遵守生物多样性公约,并实现农业和粮食安全的长期持续。”

总之,条约的指导原则是遗传资源是属于成员国(即政府)的“主权权利”。这相当于明确否认动植物资源是“人类共同遗产”的长期解释。它违反了被公认为对全人类有益的某些全球资源不应被个人、国家、企业或其他实体所单方面开发和垄断的理念,过去的认知是这些资源应当以有利于全人类的方式来进行管理。

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