American construction workers Spencer Platt/Getty Images

El nuevo socialismo de los tontos

BERKELEY – Según la teoría económica convencional, la globalización tiende a "beneficiar a todos", y tiene escaso efecto en la amplia distribución de ingresos. Pero "globalización" no es lo mismo que eliminación de aranceles y otras barreras a las importaciones que confieren ventajas de captación de renta a productores domésticos políticamente influyentes. Como frecuentemente señala el economista Dani Rodrik de la Universidad de Harvard, la teoría económica predice que eliminar los aranceles y las barreras no arancelarias efectivamente produce ganancias netas; pero también se traduce en grandes redistribuciones, donde eliminar barreras más pequeñas genera redistribuciones mayores en relación a las ganancias netas.

La globalización, para nuestros fines, es diferente. Se la debería entender como un proceso en el cual el mundo se vuelve cada vez más interconectado a través de progresos tecnológicos que hacen bajar los costos del transporte y las comunicaciones.

Sin duda, esta forma de globalización permite que los productores extranjeros exporten bienes y servicios a mercados lejanos a un costo más bajo. Pero también abre los mercados exportadores y reduce los costos para la otra parte. Y, al final de cuentas, los consumidores reciben más por menos.

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