American construction workers Spencer Platt/Getty Images

新愚人社会主义

伯克利—根据主流经济学理论,全球化会“让所有船都浮起来”,而对于广义收入分配,几乎没有影响。但“全球化”并不只是取消关税和其他让本国有政治影响力的生产商拥有寻租优势的进口壁垒。哈佛大学经济学家丹尼·罗德里克(Dani Rodrik)频繁指出,经济学理论预测,消除关税和非关税壁垒确实会带来净收益;但也会造成大规模再分配,其中消除较小壁垒所带来的再分配相对净收益更大。

出于目的的不同,全球化也有所不同。它应该被理解为一个过程,在这个过程中,减小运输和通讯成本的技术进步让世界变得日益联动。

诚然,这种形式的全球化让外国生产商以更低的成本向遥远的市场出口商品和服务。但它也为另一方打开了出口市场,降低了成本。最终,消费者以更少的前买到了更多的东西。

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