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民粹主义的反民主之心

圣地亚哥——参加国际货币基金组织10月初年度会议的代表普遍认为:“假设共和党人不顾性骚扰和侮辱性言论提名了像特朗普这样的反贸易主义者,就有可能导致民粹保护主义者入主白宫。”

弦外之音是美国和欧洲的左右翼民粹主义势力崛起是全球化及其负面影响的直接后果:相关负面影响包括失业和中产阶级收入停滞。达沃斯的与会代表不喜欢这个结论,但他们却以皈依者般的热情接受了它。

但还有另一种更具说服力的观点:虽然经济停滞可以助推选民进入民粹主义阵营,但经济形势低迷不是政治混乱的必要和充分条件。恰恰相反,普林斯顿大学政治学家穆勒在其新著中提出:民粹主义是代议制民主“永远无法摆脱的阴影”。

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