Christophe Morin/IP3/Getty Images

قلب الشعبوية المناهض للديمقراطية

سانتياجو ــ كان العديد من الرجال والنساء الذين حضروا الاجتماع السنوي لصندوق النقد الدولي في أوائل شهر أكتوبر/تشرين الأول يقولون شيئا من هذا القبيل: "تخيلوا لو رشح الجمهوريون شخصا يحمل نفس وجهات النظر المعادية للتجارة مثل ترامب، ولكنه لا يوزع الإهانات والشتائم ولا يتحرش بالنساء جنسيا. كنا لنرى شعبويا يؤيد تدابير الحماية في طريقه إلى البيت الأبيض".

المقصد الضمني هنا هو أن الشعبوية المتصاعدة على اليمين واليسار، في كل من الولايات المتحدة وأوروبا، تشكل نتيجة مباشرة للعولمة والآثار غير المرغوبة المترتبة عليها: الوظائف المفقودة وركود دخل أبناء الطبقة المتوسطة. ويكره الرجال والنساء في دافوس هذا الاستنتاج، ولكنهم اعتنقوه بحماس المهتدين الجدد.

ومع ذلك هناك وجهة نظر بديلة وأكثر إقناعا: ففي حين يساعد الركود الاقتصادي في دفع الناخبين المنزعجين إلى معسكر الشعبويين، فإن الاقتصاد الرديء ليس شرطا ضروريا أو كافيا لتغليب السياسة الرديئة. بل على العكس من ذلك، وكما يزعم باحث العلوم السياسية جان فيرنر مولر من جامعة برينستون في كتابه الجديد: تشكل الشعبوية "شبحا دائما" يخيم على الديمقراطية التمثيلية.

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