Chris Van Es

Encore une expérience ratée en Angleterre

FLORENCE – La politique anglaise a toujours constitué une manière de laboratoire d’expériences pour le monde industrialisé. Dans les années soixante-dix, c’est au Royaume-Uni que le grand modèle de management né après-guerre, reposant politiquement sur la création d’un consensus, et économiquement sur une gestion keynésienne de la demande, périclite. Ce pays, aujourd’hui sous les couleurs du “New Labour,” un parti qui cautionne la toute-puissance des marchés financiers, notamment leur grande dérégulation, vient encore de précipiter l’échec du régime dit de “régulation allégée.”

Dans les années soixante, les très bons chiffres de l’emploi et des salaires entretiennent l’illusion que les mesures keynésiennes profitent à tout le monde. Il n’y a pas plus “in” alors que l’Angleterre, avec ses Beatles, ses Rolling Stones et le style psychédélique de Carnaby Street.

Mais le keynésianisme demande de recourir en permanence à l’expansion fiscale, sans prévoir de mesures monétaires compensatoires, et dans les années soixante-dix, le Royaume-Uni se trouve devant d’imposants déficits de sa balance courante, impossibles à gérer, des taux d’inflation élevés, et une situation d’impasse politique. Qui sera le premier à s’offrir en sacrifice?

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