Chris Van Es

英国大选结果恐将拖累改革

佛罗伦萨——英国政治一向是发达国家中的试验场。20世纪70年代,英国模式成为管理战后经济崩溃的典范。该模式政治上的基础是凝聚共识,经济上的基础是凯恩斯主义需求管理。如今,在我们眼前崩溃掉的是“轻监管”体制,在该体制盛行时期,把自己包装成“新工党”的那个政党接受了大市场模式,尤其是大范围地放松了对金融市场的监管。

20世纪60年代,凯恩斯主义经济政策营造出一种人人受益的幻影:高就业水平、高工资增长;英伦三岛成了地球上最酷的地方,披头士、滚石乐队、嘉纳碧街(Carnaby Street)上的粉彩风(pastal fashions),无不令人目眩神迷。

然而,凯恩斯主义搞的是持续不断的财政扩张,却不用货币紧缩来抵消它的副作用。到了20世纪70年代,这一套办法终于给英国带来种种苦果:国际收支经常项目下不可持续的巨额赤字、高涨的通货膨胀水平以及在当务之急问题上的政治死结。哪个社会群体该为全民利益第一个作出牺牲?

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