Gage Skidmore/Wikimedia Commons

As vozes por trás de Angelina Jolie

NOVA IORQUE – No dia 26 de Maio, Debbie Martin, tia de Angelina Jolie, morreu de cancro da mama aos 61 anos. A mãe de Jolie, Marcheline Bertrand, morreu aos 56 anos, vítima de uma doença do mesmo tipo, cancro do ovário. E, duas semanas antes da morte de Debbie Martin, Jolie revelou que tinha feito uma dupla mastectomia preventiva, na sequência de exames médicos que efectuou, com resultados positivos para a mutação do gene BRCA - que está relacionado com o facto de a mulher ter uma probabilidade cinco vezes maior de desenvolver cancro da mama e ser 28 vezes mais susceptível ao desenvolvimento do cancro do ovário.

O teste para a detecção da mutação do BRCA é dispendioso - custa cerca de 3.500 dólares. Nos Estados Unidos, as seguradoras de saúde apenas cobrem os custos do exame se um familiar de primeiro grau, por exemplo, a mãe de uma mulher, tiver registado algum antecedente de cancro da mama ou de cancro do ovário; as restantes mulheres terão de pagar do próprio bolso. Tendo em conta os benefícios dos cuidados preventivos, o teste tornou-se altamente controverso, uma vez que o seu fabricante, a Myriad Genetics, detém uma patente genética que lhe confere o monopólio - e lucros elevadíssimos - de todos os testes.

A revelação de Jolie veio voltar as atenções para esta questão. De um modo mais amplo, a actriz é uma das raras sex symbols/artistas que, à semelhança de Madonna e de algumas outras mulheres, determina em grande parte a sua própria narrativa a respeito do "significado" da sua condição de celebridade. Para Angelina, este facto significa o recurso frequente ao seu estatuto de ícone para desenvolver uma agenda positiva, quer o problema esteja relacionado com os refugiados sírios na Jordânia ou com a consciencialização relativamente ao cancro da mama.

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