Les quatre surprises de Foshan

HONG KONG – Peu de gens en dehors de la Chine connaissent Foshan, une ville de sept millions d’habitants située au cœur du delta de la Pearl River dans le sud de la Chine. Pourtant, cette ville dynamique et économiquement progressiste – que Foreign Policy et le McKinsey Global Institute ont classé treizième ville la plus dynamique au monde l'an dernier, sur base de la croissance prévue de son PIB entre 2010 et 2025 – incarne la quête de la Chine vers une économie à haute valeur ajoutée et haut revenu.

Suite à ce constat, il y a environ 18 mois, une équipe de chercheurs (dont nous faisions partie) a entrepris une étude de cas sur Foshan. La ville a été choisie parce que son expérience illustre les progrès réalisés par la Chine au cours des 35 dernières années – ainsi que les défis structurels auxquels le pays est confronté aujourd'hui. En tant que l'une des premières villes chinoises à avoir mis en œuvre des réformes économiques expérimentales, Foshan s’est d’abord construite comme un centre de fabrication à faible coût et cherche à présent à devenir une puissance économique axée sur l'innovation et fondée sur la connaissance.

Le succès de l'étude de cas dépendait de partenariats essentiels. Une équipe de 24 chercheurs de la National Development and Reform Commission a partagé sa connaissance approfondie des expériences et des politiques chinoises. De plus, des experts locaux ont facilité l'examen des 14 aspects de la croissance de Foshan au cours des 35 dernières années : industrie, politique de la terre, transports, électricité, eau, finances, emploi, gouvernance, planification, finances publiques, éducation, logement, soins de santé et pensions.

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