El alto costo del deterioro de los océanos

SANTIAGO – Los océanos del mundo se encuentran en graves problemas. Según datos publicados a fines de septiembre por el Grupo Intergubernamental de Expertos sobre el Cambio Climático, sus aguas enfrentan un aumento de temperatura y acidificación, junto con una disminución de la concentración de oxígeno. La semana pasada, el Programa Internacional sobre el Estado de los Océanos reveló el perjuicio que estos y otros factores, como la pesca destructiva y la contaminación, provocan a los organismos marinos.

Pese a que la degradación de los océanos no es tan visible como la deforestación, es igualmente peligrosa. Por lo menos la mitad del oxígeno que respiramos proviene de sus aguas, las que absorben más dióxido de carbono que los bosques. El daño a los océanos puede acarrear una tremenda repercusión a nivel global.

La degradación es especialmente preocupante en la vasta zona constituida por las aguas internacionales, o alta mar. Estas son las aguas que quedan fuera de la zona comercial exclusiva de las naciones costeras y que comprenden las dos terceras partes de los océanos, es decir, el 45% de la superficie terrestre.

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