第三条道路的第二次机会

圣地亚哥—还记得布莱尔和克林顿的第三条道路(Third Way)吗?它回来了。面貌和名字换过了,但政府可以——也应该——结合社会民主价值和现代自由经济学的思想又回到了中心舞台。

在2000年6月由时任德国总理施罗德主持的柏林领导人会议上第三条道路似乎成了未来之路。这次会议是布莱尔谋划的产物(尽管他因为妻子生产而没有出席)。但克林顿发表了关于新技术如何有助于解决旧时代社会弊端的雄辩的长篇演讲。瑞典和新西兰领导人指出你可以让国家变得更精干、更有效。而南非的姆贝基、巴西的卡多佐和智利的拉各斯(我也是拉各斯代表团的成员)宣称,第三条道路可以顺利地套用到所谓的第三世界头上。

不幸的是,这一幕并不长久。掷地有声的进步治理(progressive governance)论并没有轻松地变为持久的政治哲学。戈尔用克林顿经济学换取传统民粹主义,结果败给了小布什。社会民主党及其盟友在多个欧洲国家失去了权力。伊拉克战争和2008—2009年全球金融危机导致第三条道路领导人所鼓吹的一些政策遭到严重抨击。

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