¿Sobrevivirá la Vaca Muerta?

SANTIAGO – Es indudable que la desintegración energética prevalente hoy en América del Sur no sería del agrado de Simón Bolívar -el héroe de la independencia que esperaba transformar este continente en una sola nación. Es más, él comprendería que es imposible construir una comunidad sobre una base tan fragmentada.

Perú tiene gas, que vende a México. Bolivia también tiene gas, pero no ha aprovechado plenamente su potencial desde 2006, cuando nacionalizó la industria. Argentina tuvo una industria gasífera que fue decimada por años de malas decisiones gubernamentales. Brasil descubrió hidrocarburos en las profundidades del Océano Atlántico y ha comenzado a licitar sus derechos, pero faltan muchos años para que estas nuevas fuentes comiencen a producir. Chile no tiene gas ni petróleo y ninguno de sus vecinos se los quiere vender, así que debe importar gas de lugares tan distantes como Indonesia.

Además, las redes eléctricas rara vez se encuentran interconectadas, y los precios de la energía varían ampliamente. La electricidad más cara se encuentra en Chile y Brasil, donde su precio está entre los más altos del mundo, lo cual repercute tanto en la competitividad de sus industrias como en el bolsillo de los consumidores y sus familias.

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