Ucrania, ante otra clase de “dilema del prisionero”

WASHINGTON – La decisión más importante que aguarda a la Unión Europea en este momento es la de firmar o no un acuerdo de asociación con Ucrania en la cumbre de la UE en Vilnius que tendrá lugar los días 28 y 29 de noviembre. La cuestión depende de que el presidente de Ucrania, Víktor Yanukóvich, cumpla una condición esencial: conceder indulto a la ex primera ministra y hoy presa política Yulia Timoshenko.

El acuerdo de asociación, que abarca unas 1200 páginas, supondría la eliminación de casi todos los aranceles que aplica la UE a los productos ucranianos, hecho que, según se estima, puede suponer un incremento del 12% en el PIB del país a largo plazo. También daría inicio a un plan de reformas políticas, económicas y jurídicas en Ucrania, con el apoyo de unos sesenta organismos públicos de los países miembros de la UE.

Si bien el acuerdo de asociación no implica pertenencia automática a la Unión Europea, es un paso importante en esa dirección. Según el Tratado de Roma, Ucrania, al ser un país europeo, puede pedir su incorporación a la Unión. Pero antes, debe satisfacer los “Criterios de Copenhague”, establecidos en 1993, que estipulan las condiciones básicas de ingreso.

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