Des mesures pour relancer l'économie ukrainienne

WASHINGTON, DC – L'Ukraine est parvenue brusquement à une percée démocratique. Après le bain de sang provoqué par l'ancien Président Viktor Ianoukovytch, bon nombre de ses députés ont rejoint l'opposition, ce qui a permis à une large majorité de se constituer. Pour consolider son autorité, le nouveau gouvernement devra agir rapidement et résolument et recevoir une aide internationale considérable afin de réformer l'économie en crise du pays.

L'Ukraine souffre de trois grands problèmes économiques. D'abord, ses paiements internationaux ne peuvent être maintenus à long terme. Son déficit du compte courant de l'année dernière était estimé à 8,3% du PIB et ses réserves en devises étrangères sont rapidement en train de s'épuiser, couvrant un peu plus de deux mois d'importations. Deuxièmement, les finances publiques ne peuvent pas non plus être maintenues à long terme. Le déficit budgétaire atteignant près de 8% du PIB et les taux des obligations d'Etat montent en flèche. Troisièmement, l'économie est en récession sur cinq trimestres depuis juin 2012.

Ces problèmes reflètent la politique économique de M. Ianoukovytch, qui n'avait qu'un seul objectif : s'enrichir lui et sa famille, ainsi que quelques-uns de ses amis. Au cours des quatre dernières années, l'Ukraine a connu des détournements de fonds sans précédent par ses dirigeants. Certaines estimations sur la richesse de la famille Ianoukovytch s'élèvent à près de 12 milliards de dollars. Là encore, le nouveau gouvernement aura besoin de l'aide internationale s'il espère récupérer au moins une partie de ce butin.

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