L’Europe et l’impératif iranien

MADRID – Le mois dernier, tandis que l’attention du monde était concentrée sur la crise de Crimée et les recherches autour du vol 370 de la Malaysian Airlines, le dernier cycle de négociation entre l’Iran et le P5+1 (groupe réunissant les États-Unis, la Chine, la France, la Russie et le Royaume-Uni, auxquels s’ajoute l’Allemagne) se déroulait à Vienne sans que personne n’en parle. Bien qu’il soit prévu que les discussions se poursuivent au cours de la semaine prochaine, l’issue des pourparlers demeure extrêmement incertaine – les responsables mondiaux ne pouvant par ailleurs se permettre de relâcher leurs efforts.

Cette responsabilité incombe particulièrement à l’Europe, dont l’approche vis-à-vis de l’Iran s’est jusqu’à présent révélée précieuse. Car ce sont bel et bien  les sanctions européennes qui ont finalement amené l’Iran à rejoindre la table des négociations, la force d’une diplomatie européenne unifiée ayant quant à elle facilité le « Plan d’action conjoint » fixant les modalités de conclusion d’un accord à long terme complet dans un délai de six mois.

Mais pour l’heure, à mi-chemin de la mise en œuvre de ce plan, les progrès concrètement accomplis demeurent minimes, les négociations du mois dernier n’ayant abouti à aucune avancée autour des deux principales problématiques en discussion : niveau acceptable d’enrichissement de l’uranium en Iran, et avenir du réacteur à eau lourde d’Arak. Ce profond contraste, entre un faible niveau de progression et les récentes déclarations de l’Iran concernant la conclusion d’un accord définitif d’ici le mois de juillet, soulève d’importantes questions quant à la stratégie et aux objectifs de l’Iran – autant d’interrogations qu’il incombe aux négociateurs de considérer avec soin dans la détermination de l’approche la plus appropriée.

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