A cegueira estratégica dos EUA

MADRID – As recriminações a respeito das actividades de espionagem norte-americanas, desencadeadas pelas revelações de Edward J. Snowden, antigo agente dos serviços de inteligência dos EUA, atingiram um ponto culminante. São abundantes as perguntas a respeito do que o Presidente Barack Obama sabia e de quando teve conhecimento da questão da legitimidade de escutas não-autorizadas de conversas amigáveis entre líderes estrangeiros sobre o futuro das relações transatlânticas e até mesmo sobre o significado do termo “aliado”.

Porém, à semelhança de outras crises diplomáticas recentes nos Estados Unidos, a actual tempestade reflecte um problema de natureza mais fundamental: a falta de visão estratégica da política externa norte-americana. Enquanto os EUA não conseguirem definir um quadro global, com uma orientação específica em termos de relacionamento com o mundo, torna-se inevitável uma abordagem reactiva perante a qual os incidentes de forte intensidade, como aqueles a que assistimos este mês, continuam a ser uma realidade.

Durante mais de 40 anos, a política de contenção da influência soviética do período da Guerra Fria dotou os EUA de um quadro estratégico. Embora as tácticas dos EUA tenham sido debatidas e transferidas de governo em governo, a abordagem global manteve-se consistente, uma vez que foi amplamente apoiada por republicanos e democratas. É evidente que a estratégia global de segurança nacional não ofereceu garantias relativamente a problemas ou até mesmo a grandes incidentes em países como o Vietname e a Nicarágua. No entanto, em retrospectiva, a contenção incutiu uma ordem e organização na política externa dos EUA que não existe actualmente.

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