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روسيا ونهج طريق الحرير

مدريد ــ كان تفكك أوكرانيا سبباً في الدفع بثلاثة تحديات كبرى تتعلق بالسياسة الخارجية في الغرب إلى الصدارة: خطر عزل روسيا، ومعضلة انطواء الصين، والافتقار الواسع الانتشار لأي أفكار جديدة. والتغلب على هذه التحديات يتطلب بذل جهد جماعي لتعزيز التعاون وبناء الثقة بين البلدان ذات النظم السياسية والمصالح الوطنية المتباينة. ومن الممكن أن يساهم حزام طريق الحرير الاقتصادي الذي تحدث عنه الرئيس الصيني شي جين بينج في مثل هذا الجهد.

لقد فشلت استجابة أوروبا والولايات المتحدة للأزمة في أوكرانيا في جانبين. فقد كانت أولاً وقبل كل شيء هزيلة وأظهرت صورة من الضعف الذي يقوض قدرة هذه الاستجابة على إبطال ضم روسيا لشبه جزيرة القرم، والذي بات مقبولاً ضمنا، أو التصدي لسلوكها العدواني تجاه شرق أوكرانيا. ومن ناحية أخرى، ساهم استخدام العقوبات الموجهة والزجر الدبلوماسي في عزل روسيا على الساحة الدولية، إلى الحد الذي قوض الهدف البعيد الأمد المتمثل في بناء علاقة عاملة.

ورغم الأهمية البالغة لوقوف الغرب إلى جانب مبادئه، بما في ذلك فرض عقوبات صارمة فإن الحس العملي البراجماتي لا يقل أهمية. ففي نهاية المطاف تشكل روسيا الضعيفة المنعزلة خطورة أعظم كثيراً من تلك التي تفرضها روسيا القوية المتكاملة دوليا. ولا أحد يستطيع أن ينكر رغم هذا أن العلاقة مع روسيا باتت مكسورة الآن، حيث بلغت الثقة المتبادلة أدنى مستوياتها منذ انهيار الاتحاد السوفييتي.

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