Europa insegura

MADRID – Durante los últimos cinco años, Europa se ha visto sacudida por convulsiones financieras y económicas que han causado estragos en la vida y hacienda de muchos de sus ciudadanos. La buena noticia es que, por fin, se constatan avances en el desarrollo de la arquitectura económica y monetaria de la UE que deberían contribuir a un retorno al crecimiento. Pero esta concentración de esfuerzos por parte de los líderes de la UE en los problemas internos ha derivado en desatención al ámbito de la política exterior, en particular a la seguridad. Así, a las puertas del 2014, la preocupación por la economía cede el paso a la motivada por la inseguridad estratégica de la Unión.

Se esperaba que el Consejo Europeo de Diciembre pasado se centrase en cuestiones internacionales, especialmente de seguridad. Pero esta orientación no se materializó; y el conjunto de iniciativas heterogéneas que se acordaron en la reunión, en general carentes de amplitud y alcance aunque interesantes, deberán integrarse en un marco estratégico débil y anticuado.

La vigente Estrategia Europea de Seguridad (EES), redactada en 2003 y sólo retocada en 2008, refleja las circunstancias de su concepción. La EES se desarrolló con la guerra de Irak como telón de fondo y en medio de un acalorado debate sobre la Constitución Europea, en un proceso apresurado y reactivo, secuestrado por quienes buscaban posicionar a Europa como contrapeso -o incluso poder rival- de EEUU.

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