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¿Un cartel similar a la OPEC para los trabajadores migrantes?

DUBAI – En septiembre del año 1960, los delegados de Irán, Iraq, Kuwait, Arabia Saudita y Venezuela se reunieron en Bagdad para formar la Organización de Países Exportadores de Petróleo (OPEP). A medida que se incrementaba la dependencia mundial del petróleo, también lo hacía el poder de la OPEP. Hoy en día, ya que muchos países en desarrollo – incluidos entre ellos la mayoría de los países en el Medio Oriente – se constituyen en algunos de los principales exportadores de trabajadores en el mundo, ¿será este el momento de considerar la formación de un cártel similar a la OPEP para trabajadores migrantes?

La OPEP tuvo éxito en lo que respecta a la protección de los intereses comunes de sus miembros, intereses que dichos miembros no podían proteger de manera individual. Cuando un mercado tiene distorsiones estructurales, las herramientas políticas y las acciones colectivas del tipo que encarna la OPEP podrían llegar a ser más eficaces que las políticas públicas.

Hoy en día, los países exportadores de mano de obra no son muy distintos a los miembros fundadores de la OPEP en el año 1960. Ellos, también, son vulnerables dentro de un mercado en el que sus clientes tienen la última palabra. Los países ricos importadores de mano de obra y los países pobres exportadores de mano de obra tienen una relación mutuamente dependiente; pero, los importadores de mano de obra unilateralmente pueden apretar o aflojar la inmigración o las regulaciones del mercado laboral, dejando a los exportadores en un constante estado de incertidumbre.

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