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Una Opec per i lavoratori migranti

DUBAI – Nel settembre 1960, delegati provenienti da Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Arabia Saudita e Venezuela si riunirono a Baghdad per dare vita all’Opec, l’organizzazione dei principali paesi esportatori di petrolio. Da allora, man mano che il mondo è diventato sempre più dipendente dall’oro nero, il potere dell’Opec si è notevolmente rafforzato. Oggi, essendo molti i paesi in via di sviluppo, tra cui una buona parte dei paesi del Medio Oriente, che esportano manodopera a livello mondiale, non sarebbe il caso di creare un cartello per i lavoratori migranti sul modello dell’Opec?   

L’Opec ha saputo proteggere gli interessi comuni dei suoi stati membri, che non erano in grado di tutelarli da soli. Quando un mercato presenta delle distorsioni strutturali, strumenti politici e azioni collettive come quelli offerti dall’Opec possono rivelarsi più efficaci di certe politiche pubbliche. 

Oggigiorno, i paesi che esportano manodopera non sono così diversi dai paesi che fondarono l’Opec nel 1960. Anch’essi, infatti, operano in un mercato dove sono i loro clienti a dettare legge, una condizione che li rende vulnerabili. I paesi ricchi che importano manodopera e quelli poveri che la esportano sono legati da un rapporto di mutua dipendenza; i primi, però, hanno il vantaggio di poter inasprire o allentare le leggi sull’immigrazione o sul mercato del lavoro in modo unilaterale, lasciando i secondi in uno stato di incertezza costante.

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