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أوبك للعمالة المهاجرة؟

لندن ــ في شهر سبتمبر/أيلول من عام 1960، اجتمع مندوبون من إيران والعراق والكويت والمملكة العربية السعودية وفنزويلا في بغداد لتشكيل منظمة الدول المصدرة للبترول (أوبك). ومع تزايد اعتماد العالم على النفط، تعاظمت قوة أوبك. واليوم، مع تحول العديد من الدول النامية، بما في ذلك غالبية البلدان في الشرق الأوسط، إلى بعض من الدول الرئيسية المصدرة للعمالة على مستوى العالم، فهل حان الوقت للنظر في تشكيل اتحاد احتكاري على غرار الأوبك للعمال المهاجرين؟

نجحت منظمة أوبك في حماية المصالح المشتركة لأعضائها الذين لم يكن بوسعهم حمايتها فرادى. فعندما تعاني أي سوق من تشوهات بنيوية، قد تصبح الأدوات السياسية والعمل الجماعي من قبيل الأوبك أكثر فعالية من السياسات العامة.

الواقع أن الدول المصدرة للعمالة اليوم لا تختلف كثيرا عن الأعضاء المؤسسين لأوبك في عام 1960. فهي أيضا معرضة للمخاطر في سوق حيث يتخذ العملاء القرارات. وهناك علاقة اعتماد متبادل بين الدول الغنية المستوردة للعمالة والدول الفقيرة المصدرة للعمالة؛ ولكن مستوردي العمالة يمكنهم تشديد أو تخفيف القواعد المنظمة للهجرة أو سوق العمل من جانب واحد، الأمر الذي يجعل المصدرين في حالة دائمة من عدم اليقين.

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