Margaret Scott

Un viejo problema en la Nueva Frontera de China

VARSOVIA – Si el golpe de agosto de 1991 contra Mikhail Gorbachev no hubiera fallado, los desórdenes y muertes que hemos visto en Xinjiang habrían ocurrido en Rusia. En lugar de escuchar sobre la represión en Urumqi, capital de Xinjiang, estaríamos leyendo sobre cientos de personas muertas en las calles de Almaty, y los columnistas estarían haciendo comparaciones con el sangriento aplastamiento de los manifestantes por la independencia de Ucrania en Lvov el año anterior.

Como con China hoy, habría habido algunas débiles condenas internacionales, y cierta especulación acerca de los posibles vínculos entre los militantes kazakos y los grupos en el exilio con fundamentalistas islámicos. Los expertos nos recordarían que Kazajstán nunca había sido un país y que las aspiraciones ucranianas a la independencia tenían poca base histórica. Si reemplazamos Xinjiang por Kazajstán y el Tíbet por Ucrania, nos podemos hacer una idea de la situación.

Afortunadamente, ese golpe terminó en farsa. El decadente régimen soviético fue incapaz de aplastar el creciente movimiento democrático ruso; para eso fue necesario un Vladimir Putin una década más tarde. Al optar por la masacre de Tiananmen en 1989, los gobernantes del Partido Comunista chino hicieron que su país emprendiese un camino marcadamente diferente al que siguió Rusia.

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