Lever un impôt contre l’inégalité

Les essors économiques de la Chine et de l’Inde ont permis de réduire l’inégalité mondiale. Au cours des deux dernières décennies, de nombreux Indiens et Chinois ont pu (relativement) combler le fossé qui existait entre eux et le monde « riche ».

Or, à la même période, de nombreux pays vraiment très pauvres à travers le monde ont régressé loin derrière la Chine et l’Inde (en Afrique, notamment où le retard de développement est régulièrement décrit comme catastrophique) et l’inégalité s’est accrue au sein des populations de nombreux pays. Une inégalité croissante a été enregistrée aux États-Unis ( dès le début de la gestion du pays par Ronald Reagan), au Royaume-Uni ( à l’arrivée de Margaret Thatcher ), en Russie pendant la période de la privatisation et plus récemment, en Chine et en Inde.

L’on pourrait croire que ces changements accentuent l’inégalité à travers le monde. Or, tout compte fait, l’inégalité mondiale apparaît comme relativement stable sur les vingt dernières années.

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