¿Un eje India-China?

¿Está surgiendo un nuevo alineamiento entre la India y China para contrarrestar el poder mundial de los Estados Unidos? El Primer Ministro chino, Wen Jiabao, acaba de concluir una visita de cuatro días a la India durante la cual se firmaron 11 acuerdos, incluido un amplio pacto de cooperación estratégica de cinco años. Además, Wen anunció que China apoyaría la solicitud de la India de un puesto permanente en un ampliado Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas y se oponía a la inclusión del Japón, apoyada por los Estados Unidos, para que ocupe un puesto en el Consejo.

Con una tercera parte de la población mundial y dos de las más altas tasas de crecimiento económico, una alianza entre China y la India podría ser un factor imponente en la política mundial. Aunque los dos son países en desarrollo –y gran parte de su población sigue inmersa en la pobreza-, también exhiben capacidades impresionantes en materia de tecnologías de la era de la información para fines tanto civiles como militares. Como dijo el Primer Ministro indio Manmohan Singh durante la visita de Wen, “la India y China pueden remodelar juntas el orden mundial”.

El reciente acercamiento entre los dos países indica un cambio enorme respecto de la hostilidad que caracterizó sus relaciones a raíz de su guerra de 1962 por una disputa fronteriza en el Himalaya. Cuando visité la India por primera vez como funcionario del gobierno estadounidense a finales del decenio de 1970, me asombró la fijación de mis anfitriones indios con el objetivo de obtener una posición igual a la de China. En 1998, cuando la India hizo ensayos con sus armas nucleares, el ministro de Defensa se refirió a China y el entonces Primer Ministro, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, calificó a China de enemigo número uno de la India.

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