打造平等的阿富汗

纽约—阿富汗安全和政治局势仍在受不确定性的困扰,不确定性来自美国和北约战斗部队的撤出、即将到来的总统选举和与塔利班的和平谈判陷入停滞。阿富汗政府认识到,持续的经济不安全将恶化这一危险局面,因此宣布了新的旨在吸引外国直接投资(FDI)的经济激励计划。

该计划包括以极低廉的价格向企业家提供土地、面向工厂主的最长七年的免税、以及面向农民的最长十年的低息贷款。这些激励的目标是外国投资者和本地精英,意在阻止甚至扭转资本外逃。但新措施最终还是要走上老路:分裂的政策方法将不足以解决阿富汗的根本性经济问题。

在战后转型的早期阶段,FDI快速上升,占GDP之比从2002年的1.2%上升至2005年的峰值4.3%。这些流入中的大头进入了建筑和服务业——它们也是GDP增长的主要引擎——其目的是为了满足国际民用和军用需求。

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