Una agenda económica para Italia

MILÁN – A fines de este mes, los votantes italianos elegirán a su próximo gobierno, del cual esperan empleos y un campo de juego económico más nivelado -y del cual los socios europeos de Italia esperan reformas estructurales y probidad fiscal-. ¿Cuál debería ser la agenda en materia de política económica del nuevo gobierno?

Para reducir la deuda pública, que está por encima del 120% del PBI, minimizando a la vez los ajustes dolorosos, Italia necesita crecimiento económico -algo que les ha sido esquivo a los responsables de las políticas en los últimos años-. De hecho, la tasa de crecimiento anual promedio del PBI de Italia desde que se incorporó a la unión económica y monetaria de Europa en 1999 ha sido de un anémico 0,5%, muy por debajo del promedio de casi 1,5% de la eurozona. En los cuatro años desde que estalló la crisis financiera global, la tasa de crecimiento cayó a -1,2%, comparada con el promedio de -0,2% de la eurozona, y se espera que siga siendo negativa este año.

El mayor desafío del nuevo gobierno consistirá en implementar reformas que permitan que el desempeño económico de Italia esté a la altura del de sus vecinos después de años de malas políticas e irresponsabilidad. Esto requiere una mayor inversión en innovación y capital humano.

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