Un ordre du jour économique pour l’Italie

MILAN – Les électeurs italiens vont à la fin du mois choisir leur prochain gouvernement dont il espèrent des emplois et une marge de manœuvre économique plus équilibrée – et dont les partenaires européens de l’Italie attendront des réformes structurelles et de la probité budgétaire. Quel devrait être l’ordre du jour économique du futur gouvernement ?

Pour réduire la dette publique, supérieure à 120% du PIB, tout en limitant des ajustements douloureux, l’Italie a besoin de croissance économique – un élément qui a échappé aux hommes politiques ces dernières années. En effet, depuis qu’elle a rejoint l’union économique et monétaire de l’Europe en 1999, la croissance annuelle de son PIB est restée anémique à 0,5%, nettement inférieure à la moyenne de la zone euro qui se situe à près de 1,5%. Depuis l’explosion de la crise financière globale il y a quatre ans, la croissance a chuté à -1,2%, alors que celle de la zone euro se situe en moyenne à -0,2%, et elle devrait rester négative cette année.

Le plus gros défi du nouveau gouvernement sera de mettre en place des réformes qui permettront aux performances économiques de l’Italie de rattraper celles de ses voisins, après des années de mauvaises pratiques et de négligence. Cela implique des investissements dans l’innovation et le capital humain.

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