Une « troisième voie » arabe

AMMAN – Durant toute la période postcoloniale, les pays arabes ont systématiquement échoué à produire un régime politique efficace, sans même parler d'un régime démocratique. Aujourd'hui après un demi-siècle de rivalité entre les dictatures militaires ou royales et les régimes militants islamistes, de nombreux Arabes cherchent encore une « troisième voie » : un chemin vers une forme crédible de démocratie représentative. Mais leurs efforts s'avéreront-ils aussi futiles à présent que par le passé ?

Le Moyen-Orient, qui doit son nom à sa position géographique entre l'Europe et l'Extrême-Orient, a été sous régime ottoman pendant 400 ans jusqu'à ce que les Alliés, ayant vaincu les Ottomans durant la Première Guerre Mondiale, divisent la région en entités politiques distinctes qui, aux termes de l'Accord Sykes-Picot, ont fait partie des sphères d'influence attribuées au Royaume-Uni et à la France. Mais en réponse à ces nouvelles divisions, un réveil Arabe s'est produit, né du panarabisme et du soutien de la Palestine.

De jeunes militaires charismatiques, des chefs d'État devenus dictateurs comme Gamal Abdel Nasser en Égypte, Saddam Hussein en Irak, Mouammar Kadhafi en Libye, Ali Abdallah Saleh au Yémen et Hafez el-Assad en Syrie, ont utilisé ces causes populaires pour gagner le soutien de l'opinion publique. Mais leur échec à améliorer les conditions de vie de leurs citoyens, ainsi que la critique des idéologies de gauche suite à l'effondrement de l'Union Soviétique, ont favorisé l'émergence d'un mouvement rival : l'Islam politique.

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