阿拉伯的“第三条路”

安曼—在整个后殖民地时期,阿拉伯国家一直没能建立起有效的——更不用说民主的——政府制度。如今在经历了半个世纪的军事或皇室独裁与军事伊斯兰教政权的竞争后,许多阿拉伯人开始再次寻找“第三条路”——通向可信的代议制民主的道路。但是,他们今天的努力回合过去一样以失败收场吗?

中东——这个名字来源于它夹在欧洲和东亚中间的地理位置——曾归属奥斯曼土耳其帝国统治400年,随后,奥斯曼帝国在一战中被协约国打败,中东也根据赛克斯-皮科协定(Sykes-Picot Agreement)分裂为不同的政治单元,归属英国或法国的势力范围。但是,随着新分裂局面出现的是阿拉伯的觉醒——源自对巴勒斯坦的泛阿拉伯支持。

天赋异禀的年轻军事执政者——比如埃及的纳赛尔、伊拉克的萨达姆·侯赛因、利比亚的卡扎菲、也门的萨利赫和叙利亚的哈菲兹·阿萨德——利用这一民意赢得公众支持,由执政者转身成为独裁者。但他们没能给人民带来更好的生活,加上左翼思想因为苏联解体而失去信誉,于是产生了敌对运动——政治伊斯兰教。

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