Pojištění bankovních vkladů: jiná varianta

Argentinská finanční panika a následný útok na její banky a asijská finanční krize z roku 1997 přiměly řadu zemí k tomu, aby začaly uvažovat o zavedení pojištění bankovních vkladů na ochranu úspor občanů. Je však pojištění vkladů tou nejlepší ochranou proti bankovní panice?

Pojištění vkladů bylo reakcí na bankovní krize, jaké trápily Spojené státy až do 30. let minulého století. První pojištění vkladů bylo v Americe zavedeno po velké hospodářské krizi a zprvu se zdálo, že je to terno. Paniky ustaly, což stabilizovalo finanční systém a přispělo k udržitelnému poválečnému ekonomickému růstu.

Pojištění vkladů skoncovalo s finančními panikami proto, že příčinou panického vybírání vkladů bývá obvykle sebenaplňující se proroctví. K útokům střadatelů na banky dochází tehdy, když klienti začnou mít strach, že své úspory hodlají vybrat ostatní střadatelé. A protože kdo dřív přijde, ten dřív mele - to platí i v bankách -, ti, kdo čekají, riskují, že zůstanou s prázdnýma rukama, poněvadž banka může být při ztrátách nucena zlikvidovat svá dlouhodobá aktiva, takže jí mohou dojít prostředky. Strach z paniky tedy může vyvolat paniku. Je to vysoce neefektivní, protože kdyby byli všichni střadatelé trpěliví - přestože je logické, že každý střadatel chce své peníze hned -, banka by mohla vyhovět všem.

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