¿Una alianza de civilizaciones?

MADRID – El Primer Foro Internacional de la Alianza de Civilizaciones, concebido como un antídoto a la idea de que el mundo está condenado a un "choque de civilizaciones", se llevó a cabo recientemente en Madrid y reveló de que hay más que algo de verdad en la idea de Robert Kagan de que los estadounidenses son de Marte y los europeos de Venus. Desde el 11 de septiembre de 2001, Estados Unidos se ha embarcado en una cruzada contra las fuerzas del mal en el mundo musulmán. En contraste, el ataque terrorista del 11 de marzo de 2004 en España, que dejó 200 muertos, generó una "anticruzada" que busca desarmar el extremismo mediante la construcción de puentes de entendimiento y reconciliación con el Islam.

Auspiciada de forma conjunta por España y Turquía, la iniciativa de la Alianza de Civilizaciones no carece de cálculos políticos. Para los españoles, ayuda a justificar su abrupta retirada de Iraq en 2004; para los turcos, es otro vehículo más de su lucha, como puente vital entre el Islam y Occidente, por llegar a ser parte de la Unión Europea.

La Alianza de Civilizaciones es un proyecto poco estructurado y algo confuso que apunta a sanar las heridas del conflicto entre el Islam y Occidente a través de la educación, políticas de integración viables y un diálogo mejor informado con los medios de comunicación. Sin embargo, se ve afectada por el escepticismo de los principales actores globales, como Estados Unidos, Rusia y, para estos efectos, una UE que no ha mostrado un real entusiasmo.

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