twnineVers une Alliance des civilisations ?

MADRID – Le premier forum international de l’Alliance des civilisations, conçu pour réfuter l’idée que le monde est condamné à un « choc des civilisations », s’est récemment réuni à Madrid, où il est apparu qu’il y avait un fond de vérité dans la notion de Robert Kagan selon laquelle les Américains viennent de Mars et les Européens de Vénus. Depuis le 11 septembre 2001, les Etats-Unis se sont engagés dans une croisade contre les forces du mal du monde musulman. Alors que l’attentat terroriste du 11 mars 2004 en Espagne, qui a provoqué la mort de 200 personnes, a donné lieu au lancement d’une « anti-croisade » qui a pour objectif de désarmer l’extrémisme en construisant des passerelles de compréhension et de réconciliation avec l’islam.

Parrainée conjointement par l’Espagne et la Turquie, l’initiative « Alliance des civilisations » n’est pas exempte de calcul politique. Pour l’Espagne, elle justifie en partie le retrait soudain en 2004 des soldats espagnols engagés en Irak. Pour la Turquie, à cheval entre les mondes musulman et occidental, elle est un instrument de plus pour faire avancer son admission au sein de l’Union européenne.

Ce projet vague et quelque peu confus est destiné à guérir les plaies de l’antagonisme entre l’Islam et l’Occident au moyen de programmes d’éducation, de politiques viables d’intégration et d’un dialogue mieux informé avec les médias. Il souffre toutefois du profond scepticisme des principaux acteurs mondiaux - les Etats-Unis et la Russie, et même l’Union européenne, n’ont pas vraiment manifesté d’enthousiasme pour cette initiative.

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