有关欧洲增长的议程

经合组织最近的一项研究提醒我们,欧元区以及统领欧元区经济表现的欧洲大陆最大的三个国家法国、德国和意大利的人均收入水平低于美国大约30%。随着欧洲人口构成恶化,而且如果生产效率与工业化经济体的其他地方相比继续更为缓慢地增长,这一差距有可能扩大。

欧洲经济大国为何没有赶上美国的收入水平?差距主要是由于劳动力使用不够密集。欧元区妇女、最大以及最年轻年龄组的就业率要低于美国,工作时间更少,而且更为重要的是,失业率更高。

有些人从中得到慰藉,认为欧洲人相比工作更喜欢休闲是积极的。但是,更低水平的劳动力使用主要是由于更高的税负以及缴纳更多的社会保险金,也是由于很高的社会福利水平。这种高社会福利水平是在劳动力增长迅速、用主动失业替换被动失业的需求比当今更为迫切的时期建立的。应当重新审视这些措施来提高劳动力的供应以及让公共财政更为可以持久。

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