عودة الأفغان

كابول ـ وكأن الصراع المسلح الدائر بين القوات الحكومية الأفغانية المدعومة من جانب التحالف الذي تقوده الولايات المتحدة وبين قوات طالبان لم يكن كافياً، فإذا بنا نجد أفغانستان وقد أصبحت في مواجهة الأزمة التي كانت تتمنى لو تعتبرها نجاحاً: وهي أزمة "العودة الكبرى".

من جلال أباد إلى هيرات ـ بل وفي كل مكان من شمال أفغانستان ـ نستطيع أن نرى العلامات الدالة على عودة الأفغان من المنفى. فالشاحنات الباكستانية الملونة في كل مكان، تحمل الروافد والنوافذ الخشبية والأبواب وهياكل الأسرة، والزوجات والأطفال يجلسون فوق كل هذا.

لقد كان حجم النـزوح هائلاً: ففي ذروته بلغ عدد الأفغان الذين كانوا يعيشون خارج بلادهم ستة ملايين، أغلبهم في باكستان وإيران، وكان ثلاثة أرباعهم تقريباً قد فروا من البلاد بعد الغزو السوفييتي في العام 1979، إلى جانب أعداد أقل ممن فروا من حكم الرئيس نجيب الله المناصر للسوفييت ، أو من الحرب الأهلية التي استمرت منذ العام 1992 إلى العام 1996 بين فصائل المجاهدين المختلفة، ثم حكم طالبان بعد ذلك. كما فر بعض أنصار طالبان في أعقاب طرد قادتهم حين دخل التحالف الشمالي كابول في نوفمبر/تشرين الثاني 2001.

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