美国霸权还是美国主导?

美国剑桥—在现代历史上,没有哪个国家拥有如同美国那样强大的全球军事实力。但如今一些分析家认为美国正在步上一个衰落的全球霸权——英国的后尘。这一历史比较尽管越来越热门,却有误导之嫌。

英国从未获得可与今日美国相媲美的主宰力。诚然,它拥有一支规模等于第二名和第三名之和的海军,并且“日不落帝国”统治范围覆盖了四分之一的人类。但大英帝国和当代美国的相对实力来源截然不同。一战爆发时,英国的军人数量只在列强中位居第四,GDP也位居第四,军事支出位居第三。

大英帝国在很大程度上利用当地武装实现统治。在一战的860万英军中,近三分之一来自海外。这使得当民族主义情绪开始高涨时,伦敦政府日益难以代表整个帝国宣战。

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