L'Amérique s'autodétruit

L'une des pertes engendrées par la guerre contre le terrorisme, ou, plutôt, par la manière dont les Etats-Unis mènent cette guerre, concerne le déclin de l'influence américaine en matière de développement des droits de l'homme dans le monde entier. Il s'agit là d'un revers sérieux pour le mouvement international des droits de l'homme.

Pendant plus d'un quart de siècle, depuis que la promotion des droits de l'homme sur la scène internationale est devenue un objectif explicite et déclaré de la politique extérieure des Etats-Unis sous le président Jimmy Carter, l'influence américaine a joué un rôle prédominant dans l'atténuation des abus. Les conséquences se sont faites le plus sentir dans ce qui constituait alors les pays de l'empire soviétique, mais elles se sont également étendues aux autres régions.

Même lorsque les Etats-Unis ont soutenu des régimes qui violaient gravement les droits de l'homme ou lorsqu'ils ont excusés ces régimes en raison de la priorité accordée à d'autres intérêts nationaux, le mouvement des droits de l'homme a souvent été en mesure d'embarrasser Washington en le faisant endosser les abus de ses protégés. Au cours des années 1980, cette approche a centré l'attention sur les abus survenus dans une Amérique Centrale ravagée par les conflits et dans l'Irak de Saddam Hussein, que l'Administration Reagan a favorisé dans sa lutte contre l'ennemi de l'Amérique, l'Iran de l'ayatollah Khomeini. Elle a donc parfois accompli indirectement ce qui ne pouvait pas l'être directement, à savoir l'accroissement de l'influence américaine en matière de promotion des droits de l'homme.

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