Amerikas abgeschwächte Hinwendung nach Asien

NEU DELHI – Präsident Barack Obamas erste Auslandsreise nach seiner Wiederwahl unterstreicht Asiens neue zentrale Bedeutung für die Wirtschaft und Sicherheit Amerikas. Allerdings wird durch Obamas Reise nach Asien auch die Hauptfrage hinsichtlich der amerikanischen Politik in der Region in den Vordergrund gerückt: Werden die Vereinigten Staaten ihrer „Hinwendung“ nach Asien auch konkrete strategische Inhalte verleihen oder wird sie größtenteils die rhetorische Verpackung für alte Strategien bleiben?

Die Vereinigten Staaten sind rasch zur Stelle, wenn es darum geht, die durch Chinas zunehmend forsche Muskelspiele ausgelöste Sorge in der Region für sich zu nutzen. Daher haben sie ihre militärischen Verbindungen zu bestehenden Verbündeten in Asien verstärkt und Sicherheitsbeziehungen zu neuen Freunden geknüpft. Allerdings überdeckt der schöne Schein der amerikanischen Wiederkehr in das Zentrum der asiatischen Aufmerksamkeit wichtige Herausforderungen hinsichtlich der Frage, ob die USA angesichts der strategischen Ambitionen Chinas der wichtigste Sicherheitsanker der Region bleiben.   

Eine dieser Herausforderungen besteht in der Erfordernis, der Aushöhlung der relativen Macht Amerikas Einhalt zu gebieten. Um dies zu erreichen, bedarf es wiederum einer umfassenden innenpolitischen Erneuerung, einschließlich der haushaltspolitischen Konsolidierung. Aufgrund der notwendigen Ausgabenkürzungen, erhebt sich auch die Frage, ob die USA womöglich nicht in der Lage sein könnten, eine militärische Verlagerung in Richtung der asiatisch-pazifischen Region zu finanzieren – oder, noch schlimmer, ob sie gezwungen sein könnten, sich von dort zurückzuziehen.

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