Le « pivot » désaxé des Etats-Unis

NEW DELHI – Le premier voyage à l'étranger du président Barack Obama après la victoire de son second mandat met en évidence la nouvelle centralité de l'Asie par rapport à l'économie et à la sécurité des Etats-Unis. Mais la tournée d'Obama en Asie souligne également la principale question de la politique américaine dans la région : le « pivot » des Etats-Unis vers l'Asie va-t-il acquérir un contenu stratégique effectif, ou bien restera-t-il en grande partie un nouvel emballage rhétorique pour de vieilles mesures politiques ?

Les États-Unis, prompts à tirer parti des préoccupations régionales déclenchées par l'affirmation de soi de plus en plus musclée de la Chine, ont renforcé leurs liens militaires avec leurs alliés asiatiques existants et ont forgé des relations de sécurité avec de nouveaux amis. Mais le grisant retour des Etats-Unis au premier plan en Asie a obscurci ses principaux défis, pour demeurer un point d'ancrage principal de sécurité dans la région, face aux ambitions stratégiques de la Chine.

Un de ces défis est le besoin d'arrêter l'érosion du pouvoir relatif des Etats-Unis, ce qui exige à son tour un complet renouvellement de la politique intérieure, dont en particulier l'assainissement des finances publiques. Mais la nécessité d'une réduction des dépenses soulève également l'éventualité que les Etats-Unis soient incapables de financer un changement militaire vers la région Asie-Pacifique, ou pire encore, qu'ils soient forcés de se replier.

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