Amerikas gefährliche Hinwendung nach Asien

MADRID – Pazifik oder Naher Osten? Das ist momentan die wichtigste strategische Frage für die Vereinigten Staaten. Die Gewalt in Gaza, die zu dem Zeitpunkt ausbrach, als Präsident Barack Obama mit führenden Politikern Asiens in Phnom Penh zusammentraf,  stellt das amerikanische Dilemma sehr anschaulich dar. Anstatt sich auf Amerikas außenpolitische Hinwendung nach Asien konzentrieren zu können, war Obama gezwungen, viele Stunden im Gespräch mit ägyptischen und israelischen Spitzenpolitikern zu verbringen und Außenministerin Hillary Clinton von Asien in die Krisenregion zu entsenden, um in Gaza einen Waffenstillstand zu erreichen. 

Von den zwei geopolitischen Brennpunkten, die momentan Amerikas Aufmerksamkeit erfordern, repräsentiert einer die Zukunft und der andere die Vergangenheit. Während Asien im US-Präsidentschaftswahlkampf aufgrund der oftmals hitzigen Debatten über Chinas Aufstieg eine prominente Rolle spielte, beschäftigt die verfahrene Situation im Nahen Osten die USA bereits seit  Jahrzehnten. Neben dem endlosen israelisch-palästinensischen Konflikt verlangen auch der instabile  Irak, der Arabische Frühling, der Bürgerkrieg in Syrien und das anhaltende Patt hinsichtlich der nuklearen Ambitionen des Iran die Aufmerksamkeit Amerikas.

Sollte es in der Iran-Krise zu einer Eskalation kommen, wäre die Hinwendung nach Asien nicht mehr Amerikas oberste außenpolitische Priorität. Gäbe es für den Konflikt  mit dem Iran allerdings eine diplomatische Lösung, könnte der Nahe Osten in der Prioritätenliste weiter unten gereiht werden, was Obama eindeutig anstrebt. Die Frage lautet daher, ob die USA in einen weiteren Krieg in jener Region hineingezogen werden, von der sie hinsichtlich ihrer Energieversorgung immer weniger abhängig sind.

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