L’hégémonie trompeuse des États-Unis

Lorsque j’ai écrit sur “la fin de l’histoire” il y a presque vingt ans, je n’avais pas anticipé à quel point le comportement et les erreurs de jugement américains feraient de l’anti-américanisme l’une des principales failles de la politique mondiale. Et pourtant, particulièrement depuis les attaques terroristes du 11 septembre 20001, c’est précisément ce qui est arrivé, à cause de quatre erreurs magistrales de l’administration Bush.

Premièrement, la doctrine “d’opérations préventives,” conçue en réponse aux attaques de 2001, a été élargie de façon inappropriée afin d’y inclure l’Irak et les autres prétendus “États-voyous” menaçant de mettre au point des armes destruction massive. Certes, la prévention est tout à fait justifiée quand il s’agit de terroristes apatrides brandissant de telles armes. Mais elle ne peut constituer le noyau d’une politique générale de non-prolifération, par laquelle les États-Unis interviennent militairement partout pour empêcher le développement d’armes nucléaires.

Le coût d’une telle politique est tout simplement trop élevé (plusieurs centaines de milliards de dollars et des dizaines de milliers de victimes en Irak, et ce n’est pas fini). C’est la raison pour laquelle l’administration Bush n’a pas osé la confrontation militaire avec la Corée du Nord et l’Iran, en dépit de son approbation inconditionnelle du bombardement par Israël du réacteur irakien Osirak en 1981, qui renvoya le programme nucléaire de Saddam Hussein plusieurs années en arrière. Après tout, le succès même de cette attaque signifiait qu’une intervention limitée de ce type ne pourrait jamais être répétée, car les candidats à la prolifération apprirent à enterrer, cacher ou dupliquer leurs programmes d’armement naissants.

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