La nueva hipocresía comercial de Estados Unidos

Mientras la actual “ronda de desarrollo” de las conversaciones sobre comercio avanza hacia sus instancias finales, resulta cada vez más evidente que no se cumplirá el objetivo de promover el desarrollo y que el sistema de comercio multilateral se verá minado. En ninguna parte esto queda tan claro como en una cláusula que supuestamente le da a los países menos desarrollados un acceso casi libre de derechos de aduana a los mercados de los países desarrollados.

Hace un año, los líderes de los países más ricos del mundo se comprometieron a aliviar la situación de los más pobres. En Doha, en noviembre de 2001, prometieron ofrecer algo más valioso que dinero: la oportunidad para los países pobres de vender sus productos y salir de la pobreza por sus propios medios. Con gran fanfarria, los países desarrollados, por un momento, parecieron estar cumpliendo con su promesa, cuando Europa prorrogó la iniciativa “Todo excepto armas” (EBA), según la cual abriría unilateralmente sus mercados a los países más pobres del mundo.

La apertura fue menor de lo que aparentaba. El diablo metió la cola, ya que muchos países menos desarrollados descubrieron que las complicadas reglas de origen de la iniciativa EBA, junto con las restricciones del ofertismo fiscal, implicaban que los países pobres tenían pocas posibilidades de exportar sus productos recientemente liberalizados.

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