Новое торговое лицемерие Америки

По мере того как текущий «раунд развития» торговых переговоров подходит к своей заключительной стадии, становится всё более очевидным, что цель – стимулирование развития – не будет достигнута, и что стабильность многосторонней торговой системы будет подорвана. Это особенно заметно в положении, которое предполагает наделение самых слабо развитых стран практически бесплатным доступом к рынкам развитых стран.

Год назад лидеры самых богатых стран мира приняли на себя обязательство облегчить положение беднейших стран. В ноябре 2001 в г. Доха они пообещали предоставить кое-что более ценное, чем деньги: возможность бедным странам продавать свои товары и тем самым выбраться из бедности. С большими фанфарами развитые страны в течение какого-то времени вроде бы выполняли свои обещания, т.к. Европа выдвинула инициативу «Всё кроме оружия» (EBA), в соответствии с которой предполагала в одностороннем порядке открыть свои рынки для беднейших стран мира.

Рынки не стали настолько открытыми, как казалось. Загвоздка заключалась в деталях: многие менее развитые страны обнаружили, что EBA усложнила правила определения страны происхождения товара и расширила ограничения для поставщиков, т.е. у бедных стран было мало шансов экспортировать свою продукцию, с которой только что были сняты ограничения.

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