美国新的贸易伪善

正值当前的“发展回合”贸易谈判进入最后阶段之际,人们越来越清楚地看到促进发展的目标无法实现,而且多边贸易体系将会受到损害。有一项条款让这一现象再清楚不过了,那就是看似给予最不发达国家几乎免税的发达国家的市场准入。

一年前,世界最富有国家的领导人承诺缓解最穷国家的困境。2001年11月在多哈,它们保证给予比钱更为有价值的东西,也就是给穷国出售其产品并且获得收入摆脱贫困的机会。在一阵大肆喧闹中,当欧盟延伸“除了武器外的所有产品”项目(EBA),也就是向世界最贫困国家单方面开放其市场之际,发达国家们看似某些时候确实在实现其诺言。

这一开放比看起来的要小。问题出在了细节之中。许多不发达国家发现,这一项目复杂的原产地规则以及供应方限制意味着贫穷国家几乎没有机会出口它们刚刚获得贸易自由的产品。

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