Les faiblesses de la  politique étrangère d’Obama

PARIS – Tirer un bilan de la politique étrangère d’un président américain à l’issue d’un seul mandat n’est pas chose aisée, compte tenu de l’environnement diplomatique et stratégique complexe et des nombreuses contraintes nationales auxquelles est confronté tout président américain. Il n’en reste pas moins important, à la veille de l’élection présidentielle du 6 novembre prochain, d’apprécier les forces qui ont déterminé la politique étrangère de Barack Obama et d’évaluer la manière dont il y a répondu.

Obama a tenu sa promesse de retirer les troupes américaines d’Irak pendant son premier mandat. Mais ce retrait s’est révélé être une défaite stratégique étant donné qu’il a considérablement réduit l’influence des Etats-Unis en Irak. En fait, le gouvernement du Premier ministre Nouri al-Maliki se rapproche de plus en plus de l’Iran. Obama, qui était opposé à la guerre en Irak, ne doit pas être tenu responsable des circonstances qui prévalent aujourd’hui dans ce pays. Mais il n’a pas su améliorer la situation ou aider les chiites et les sunnites irakiens à trouver un compromis politique.

En revanche, Obama a consacré davantage de ressources à la guerre en Afghanistan – qu’il considère être une guerre de nécessité – et mis les talibans sur la défensive. Mais les Etats-Unis entameront le retrait de leurs forces dans ce pays à partir de 2014, sans avoir mis en place une solution politique conforme à leurs intérêts.

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