Il peculiare conservatorismo fiscale americano

WASHINGTON, DC – Nella maggior parte dei paesi del mondo essere "conservatori fiscali" significa avere molto a cuore i temi del disavanzo e del debito, e metterli sempre in cima all'agenda politica. Oggi, in molti paesi dell'Eurozona, i "conservatori fiscali" rappresentano un gruppo potente che spinge per incrementare le entrate statali, mantenendo la spesa sotto controllo. Persino in Gran Bretagna i leader conservatori si sono recentemente detti pronti ad aumentare le tasse e a cercare di contenere la spesa futura.

Gli Stati Uniti seguono una linea diversa al riguardo. I leader politici americani che scelgono di definirsi "conservatori fiscali", come Paul Ryan, candidato alla vicepresidenza a fianco di Mitt Romney, in corsa per la presidenza alle prossime elezioni, pensano più a ridurre le tasse, a prescindere dagli effetti che ciò potrebbe avere sul disavanzo federale e sul totale del debito insoluto. Perché i conservatori fiscali americani si preoccupano così poco del debito pubblico rispetto ai loro colleghi di altri Paesi?

Le cose non sono sempre andate così. Nel 1960, ad esempio, i consiglieri del Presidente Dwight D. Eisenhower suggerirono a quest'ultimo di ridurre le tasse per spianare la strada all'elezione di Richard Nixon, suo vice, alla presidenza. Eisenhower ignorò il consiglio, un po' perché non nutriva particolare simpatia e fiducia nei confronti di Nixon, ma soprattutto perché riteneva importante consegnare al successore un bilancio quasi in pareggio.

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