Amerikas außergewöhnlicher Fiskalkonservatismus

WASHINGTON, D. C. – In den meisten Ländern bedeutet „fiskalkonservativ“ zu sein, sich viele Gedanken über das Haushaltsdefizit und den Schuldenstand zu machen und diese Fragen ganz oben auf die politische Agenda zu setzen. In vielen Ländern der Eurozone sind die „Fiskalkonservativen“ heute eine mächtige Gruppe, die darauf besteht, dass die Staatseinnahmen gestärkt und die Ausgaben unter Kontrolle gebracht werden müssen. Auch in Großbritannien haben sich führende Konservative in letzter Zeit willens gezeigt, die Steuern zu erhöhen, und versucht, zukünftige Ausgaben zu begrenzen.

Die Vereinigten Staaten sind in dieser Hinsicht völlig anders. Den dortigen führenden Politikern, die sich „fiskalkonservativ“ nennen – so z. B. Paul Ryan, derzeit mutmaßlicher republikanischer Kandidat für das Amt des Vizepräsidenten, der sich neben dem Präsidentschaftskandidaten Mitt Romney im November zur Wahl stellt –, ist es wichtiger, die Steuern zu senken, unabhängig von den Auswirkungen auf das US-Haushaltsdefizit und die Gesamtsumme der ausstehenden Schulden. Warum scheren sich US-Fiskalkonservative im Vergleich zu ihren Kollegen in anderen Ländern so wenig um die Staatsschulden?

Es war nicht immer so. 1960 zum Beispiel schlugen die Berater von Präsident Dwight D. Eisenhower vor, er sollte die Steuern senken, um so die Bahn für die Wahl seines Vizepräsidenten Richard Nixon zum Präsidenten zu ebnen. Eisenhower lehnte dies ab, zum Teil weil er Nixon nicht besonders mochte oder vertraute, vor allem aber weil er dachte, es sei wichtig, seinem Nachfolger einen ausgeglicheneren Haushalt zu hinterlassen.

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