Americké dilema zaměstnanosti

BERKELEY – Vždy existují dvě možnosti, jak krátkodobě zvýšit zaměstnanost. První možností je zvýšit poptávku po zboží a službách a pak si sednout a dívat se, jak zaměstnanost stoupá, neboť firmy přijímají lidi na produkci zboží a služeb, které tuto poptávku uspokojí. Druhou možností je nelámat si s produkcí zboží a služeb hlavu, ale pokusit se zvýšit zaměstnanost přímo prostřednictvím najímání lidí vládou.

První cesta je lepší: nejenže získáte více pracovních míst, ale vyrobíte i více užitečných věcí. Problém je v tom, že se toto řešení neprojeví příliš rychle. Podléhá tomu, co Milton Friedman nazýval „dlouhými a kolísavými prodlevami“. Politika zaměřená na zvýšení zaměstnanosti řekněme do konce tohoto kalendářního roku by tak musela být přijata zhruba před rokem, aby měla dost času projevit se naplno.

Některé země – například Čína – skutečně zavedly politiku orientovanou na tvorbu pracovních míst před rokem a již vidí její přínos. Jiné země jako Spojené státy to neučinily, a tak se v nich nezaměstnanost dál pohybuje kolem 10%.

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