美国的就业困局

伯克利——

短期内拉动就业的方式一般有两种:一种是增强人们对商品和服务的需求,之后便可坐待就业率上升,因为各行各业会招募员工,以生产商品、提供服务,满足那种需求;另一种方式则不去考虑商品的生产与服务的提供,而是通过政府的直接招募行为,以试图推动就业。

比较而言,第一种方式更好:因为这种方式不但创造出了更多的就业岗位,而且制造出了更多有用的物品;但它的问题在于起效不是很快。这种模式会受到被米尔顿·弗里德曼称为“长期多变的滞后”效应之影响。因此,例如那些打算到今年年底时推动就业的政策,在大约一年之前就需要到位,这样它们才能有时间发挥出全部的功效。

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