Élection américaine et économie mondiale

STANFORD – Tandis que les élections américaines se rapprochent à grands pas, le président Barack Obama, toujours légèrement en avance sur son challenger Républicain, l’ancien gouverneur du Massachusetts Mitt Romney, les sondages continuent de présager une course serrée pour le contrôle de la présidence et du Sénat des États-Unis, sachant que la Chambre des Représentants devrait probablement demeurer aux mains des Républicains. Les différences entre les candidats sont considérables, et se manifesteraient par d’importantes conséquences en termes de politique économique américaine d’économie mondiale, même si l’application des programmes dépendra de la composition du Congrès.

Les différences les plus substantielles existant entre les deux candidats peuvent être synthétisées de la manière suivante :

Les dépenses. Obama a considérablement augmenté le volume des dépenses. Il est très probable que celui-ci poursuive la plupart de ses programmes temporaires (Milton Friedman n’avait-il pas en effet observé : « Rien n’est plus permanent qu’un programme temporaire du gouvernement. ») ; qu’il renforce la démarche de l’État consistant à désigner les gagnants et les perdants en matière d’énergie verte ; qu’il multiplie les dépenses dans l’éducation et les infrastructures ; et qu’il réduise enfin fortement les dépenses militaires.

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