Час расплаты для Америки

Пессимисты, долгое время предсказывавшие, что американскую экономику ожидают серьезные проблемы, похоже, наконец, добились признания. Конечно, в падении цен на акции в результате растущего числа невыплат по ипотечным закладным радости мало. Но это было в целом предсказуемо, равно как и возможные последствия для миллионов американцев, стоящих перед лицом финансовых проблем и глобальной экономики.

Эта история берет начало в спаде 2001 года. При поддержке председателя Федерального Резерва Алана Гринспена президент Джордж Буш осуществил свою политику сокращения налогов, призванную принести выгоду самым богатым слоям населения Америки, а не вывести экономику из состояния спада после того, как лопнул мыльный пузырь интернета. Принимая во внимание эту ошибку, у Федерального Резерва практически не было выбора для выполнения своего мандата поддержания роста и уровня занятости: он должен был понизить ставки процента, что сделал беспрецедентным образом – до 1%.

Эта политика принесла результаты, но совершенно отличные от обычных результатов кредитно-денежной политики. Обычно низкие процентные ставки поощряют компании занимать больше для того, чтобы делать больше инвестиций, и более высокий уровень задолженности компенсируется за счет более высокого уровня производительности активов.

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